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Data from Pakistan and South Africa highlight advantages of vaccination early in life.
The study supports WHO guidance for conserving vaccine during shortages.
A benefit was found, however, when pelvic infection was defined by strict criteria.
Insufficient clean water and poor sanitation raise the risk of acquiring XDR typhoid in Pakistan.
A WHO panel raises concerns about an increase in wild poliovirus cases, among other setbacks.
Alongside the finding that progress has stalled in hard-hit countries, the WHO and partners launch a new response strategy.
The study provides evidence that population immunity is critical for the successful phase-out of oral polio vaccines.
Scientists have identified the genetic basis for an XDR typhoid outbreak in Pakistan.
Babies living in countries affected by conflict made up more than half of the total of unvaccinated group.
A second case of vaccine-derived polio is reported in Raqqa, Syria, while a Pakistani toddler has a wild poliovirus infection.
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