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Zika RNA was present in semen for a median of 40 days and in vaginal fluid for a median of 14 days.
The WHO says the cases in India likely reflect low-level transmission.
Chan said infectious disease challenges over the last decade led to better preparedness, but not nearly enough.
In research news, infected monkeys showed multi-organ involvement.
Surprisingly, tests on placental cells that correspond to the earliest pregnancy stages found more damage from the African Zika strain than the Asian one.
The vaccine protected macaques from infection 5 weeks later and mice 5 months later.
"Fighting Zika is the most complex epidemic response CDC has taken on," Frieden says.
In other developments, research teams describe viral levels in semen and thrombocytopenia as a complication.
Also, New York's first 80 cases point to the usefulness of urine testing for diagnosis.
Findings from "minibrain" experiments raise new questions on how Zika infects developing fetal brain cells.
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