Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Jul 18, 2018

Best antibiotic practices for farms
Colistin resistance and MCR-1
Antibiotic persistence in goat's milk

New UK program targets farmers', veterinarians' antibiotic use

The United Kingdom's National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) launched a new best practices program meant to guide the responsible use of antibiotics among farmers and veterinarians. The program, which includes online training modules, is aimed at all those working in the sheep, dairy, beef, and pig sectors.

"The UK is at the forefront of global efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance. Recent statistics show there has been a 27 per cent drop in use of antibiotics in food-producing animals in the UK since 2014—meeting a government commitment two years early," British Biosecurity Minister Lord Gardiner said in a NOAH press release. "Our farmers and vets must be commended for driving down antibiotic use in livestock to this all-time low—setting an excellent example for others around the world to follow. But it is vital we continue making progress."

The training modules are available on the NOAH website or through the online Lantra eLearning platform.  According to NOAH, veterinarians will also be to access resource materials, enabling them to help train their clients.

A number of stakeholders helped create the training program, including the Responsible Use of Medicines in Agriculture Alliance (RUMA), the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD), the British Retail Consortium (BRC), and leading academics.
Jul 17 NOAH press release


Thai study finds high colistin resistance, MCR-1 rates

A single-center study of hospitalized Thai patients who received colistin for treating Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae infections found that 47.5% had colistin-resistant pathogens and 13.0% of isolates harbored the MCR-1 colistin-resistance gene. The findings appeared yesterday in Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control.

Researchers analyzed data on 139 adult patients in Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok from December 2016 through November 2017. They collected culture samples from the stool and infection site of each patient who received colistin at study enrollment, 3 and 7 days after study enrollment, and once a week thereafter to determine colistin resistance.

Colistin has been used to treat carbapenem-resistant gram-negative infections in Thailand, especially carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, for more than 10 years, the authors report. The prevalence of colistin-resistant A baumannii and P aeruginosa, however, is still less than 5%.

The team found an overall prevalence of colistin-resistant E coli or K pneumoniae colonization of 47.5%, with the prevalence rising from 17.3% at study enrollment to 30.2% afterward. The researchers found the use of fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and colistin to be significantly associated with colistin-resistant pathogen colonization. They detected the MCR-1 gene in 13.0% of isolates and in 27.3% of subjects with colistin-resistant colonization. Colonization with colistin-resistant E coli or K pneumoniae persisted in 65.2% of the patients at the end of the study.
Jul 17 Antimicrob Resist Infect Control study


Study hints that herbal drug may cut risk of antibiotic resistance in dairy animals

A polyherbal drug used in India to prevent mastitis in livestock appears to reduce the persistence of antibacterial drugs in milk, a team from West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences reported yesterday in Scientific Reports.

Ceftriaxone is used to treat mastitis in dairy settings, but persistence of antibacterial drugs for prolonged periods in milk is thought to increase the probability of antimicrobial resistance, the authors wrote. Fibrosin, a proprietary blend of herbal ingredients, is marketed by an Indian company to facilitate cleaning of the udder by clearing tissue debris and aiding the flow of milk during mastitis.

To assess the impact of the herbal drug on antibiotic clearance, researchers divided 18 healthy lactating goats into three groups: a control group that got a single dose of ceftriaxone, one group of healthy goats that got a single dose of Fibrosin 1 hour before ceftriaxone injection, and one group of goats with mastitis that got a dose of Fibrosin 1 hour before ceftriaxone injection. Then they collected milk samples at several points up to 720 hours after dosing.

They found that the polyherbal drug hastened the excretion of ceftizoxime from milk compared to the control group; ceftriaxone could not be detected in milk.

The team concluded that adjunct single or repeated therapy of the polyherbal drug may block the persistence of ceftriaxone and shorten the persistence of ceftizoxime.
Jul 18 Sci Rep abstract

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