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The agency also establishes new steps to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry.
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella has decreased and resistance to two important classes of antibiotics remains low, but resistance to the bacterium that causes typhoid fever is worrisome.
Most US samples had bacterial contamination, and a good many had pathogenic varieties.
Non-outbreak raw-milk cases may outnumber outbreak cases 25 to 1—and knowing the farmer might not help.
Bemis K, Marcus R, Hadler JL. Socioeconomic status and campylobacteriosis, Connecticut, USA, 1999-2009. (Letter) Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online Jun 12)
Boysen L, Rosenquist H, Larsson JT, et al. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. Epidemiol Infect 2013 (published online Oct 30)
CDC. Multistate outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with undercooked chicken livers—Northeastern United States, 2012. MMWR 2013 Nov 8;62(44):874-6
Guevremont E, Lamoureux L, Loubier CB, et al. Detection and characterization of campylobacter spp. from 40 dairy cattle herds in Quebec, Canada. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2014 (published online Mar 11)
Horn BJ, Lake RJ. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel. Euro Surveill 2013 Oct 3;18(40):pii=20602
Humphrey S, Chaloner G, Kemmett K, et al. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare. MBio 2014 Jul 1;5(4):e01364-14
Lazou T, Houf K, Soultos N, et al. Campylobacter in small ruminants at slaughter: prevalence pulsotypes and antibiotic resistance. Int J Food Microbiol 2014 Mar 3;173:54-61
Pasturel BZ, Cruz-Cano R, Goldstein RER, et al. Impact of rurality, broiler operations, and community socioeconomic factors on the risk of campylobacteriosis in Maryland. Am J Public Health 2013 Dec;103(12)
Schielke A, Bettina RM, Stark K. Epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in Germany—insights from 10 years of surveillance. BMC Infect Dis 2014 Jan 15;14(30)
Wagenaar JA, French NP, Havelaar AH. Preventing Campylobacter at the source–why is it so difficult? Clin Infect Dis 2013 (published online Sep 6)
Wagenaar JA, van Bergen MAP, Blaser MJ, et al. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans: exposure and disease. Clin Infect Dis 2014 (published online Feb 18)
Weinberger M, Lerner L, Valinsky L, et al. Increased incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection and high rates among children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis 2013 (published online Sep 6)
Ziegler M, Claar C, Rice D, et al. Outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with a long-distance obstacle adventure race — Nevada, October 2012. MMWR 2014 May 2;63(17):375-8
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