Salmonella outbreak tied to nutritional powder grows to 18 cases, 15 states
An outbreak involving Salmonella Virchow linked to Garden of Life RAW Meal Organic Shake and Meal Replacement products has grown by 7 cases, to 18, and the number of affected states has increased from 9 to 15 since the outbreak was first reported more than 2 weeks ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said today.
Patients range in age from 1 to 76 years, with a median of 34. Of 12 patients with available information, 4 were hospitalized, with is an increase of 3 since the initial CDC report on Feb 2. No deaths have been reported. Illness-onset dates range from Dec 5, 2015, to Feb 3.
Of 14 patients interviewed, all reported consuming Garden of Life RAW Meal products in the week before they fell ill.
The Utah Public Health Laboratory and Oklahoma Public Health Laboratory isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Virchow from open containers of Garden of Life RAW Meal collected from sick people's homes. And Food and Drug Administration sampling confirmed the outbreak strain in organic moringa leaf powder used in the products.
Garden of Life, of West Palm Beach, Fla., recalled some products on Jan 29, then expanded its recall on Feb 12. The company also said it will remove moringa leaf powder from its products.
Feb 19 CDC update
Feb 16 CIDRAP News scan on the outbreak
Study: Ebola antibody-binding at protein stalk most effective in mice
The effectiveness of Ebola neutralizing antibodies depends significantly on where they target the virus's glycoprotein, according to findings published yesterday in Science.
A team of researchers from numerous US institutes and Adimab LLC isolated 349 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bond to Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP). The mAbs were obtained from the B cells of an EBOV survivor who exhibited a strong immune response to the virus 3 months following infection. Of the 349 antibodies, 77% were able to neutralize live EBOV.
Investigators studied the effect of isolated mAbs that target three areas of the EBOV GP: the glycan cap, the GP1/GP2 interface, and the stalk. Antibodies that targeted the GP stalk, which is located next to the viral membrane, were highly effective in neutralizing EBOV, leading to 60% to 100% survival rates in mice.
Five of the six antibodies in the mAb KZ52 group, which targets the GP1/GP2 interface and is a component of the ZMapp Ebola vaccine, also were effective in neutralizing the virus, leading to a 60% to 100% survival rate in mice.
Antibodies that targeted the glycan cap showed low efficacy in mice, with survival rates at or below 50%, with the exception of an antibody known as ADI-16037, which led to survival rates of about 80%.
Investigators also analyzed mAb-binding responses at the virus's mucin-like domain, which is hypothesized to shield EBOV glycoprotein from neutralizing antibodies. Only two mAbs failed to bind to the mucin-like domain, the study said, and about 30% of mAbs showed increased binding responses to the domain.
The researchers said their findings have implications for future EBOV therapies that should be tailored to where the virus is most vulnerable to neutralizing antibodies.
Feb 18 Science study