News Scan for Mar 15, 2017

Polio case in Pakistan
Antibiotic-resistant eye infections

New polio case reported in Pakistan, its second this year

Pakistan has a new case of paralysis and infection with wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), its second of the year and the world's fourth in 2017, according to a post yesterday by ProMED-mail, the infectious disease news service of the International Society for Infectious Diseases.

The EpiCore Surveillance Project confirmed the infection after the case in Gilgit-Baltistan in the far north was reported in the media, according to ProMED-mail. The virus isolated from the patient is genetically related to isolates from environmental samples in Lahore collected last year, suggesting significant "silent" circulation of WPV1 near Lahore and possibly Gilgit-Baltistan. Such circulation would be an indication of suboptimal vaccination coverage in areas believed to be polio free, according to a ProMED moderator.

Pakistan's first reported WPV1 patient of 2017 had onset of paralysis in late January, according to an update last week by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Afghanistan has also reported two cases this year. The global WPV1 total in 2016 was 37 cases, GPEI noted, all in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, the only countries in the world that still have endemic polio.
Mar 14 ProMED-mail post
Mar 8 GPEI update


High prevalence of drug-resistant bacterial eye infections noted in Ethiopia

A study yesterday in BMC Infectious Diseases found a high prevalence of bacteria in Ethiopian patients with eye infections, with a significant amount of multidrug resistance.

In the study, which was conducted at a hospital in Ethiopia in 2015, researchers cultured ocular specimens from 270 patients who presented with suspected ocular infections, including conjunctivitis, keratitis, periorbital cellulitis, and blepharitis. The investigators also conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing and collected data on sociodemographic and risk factors.

Of the 270 patients, 180 (66.7%) were culture-positive for bacterial isolates, with 113 (60.7%) bacterial isolates identified as gram-positive and 87 (39.3%) as gram-negative. The dominant bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (21.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.3%), and Escherichia coli (8%).

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that a strong majority of isolates were susceptible to amikacin (93.2%), ciprofloxacin (89.2%), gentamicin (131, 89.1%), and doxycycline (71.9%). But 22.5% of bacterial isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, 53.9% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, and 34.8% were resistant three or more.

Ocular surface disease, ocular trauma, hospitalization, and cosmetic application practices were significantly associated with the occurrence of bacterial infection.

"Identification of the specific etiologic agent and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be practiced during the management of ocular infections to reduce the further emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria," the authors conclude.
Mar 14 BMC Infect Dis study

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