Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Mar 24, 2017

MDR bacteria in Myanmar
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New AMR initiative

Researchers report high prevalence of MDR bacteria in Myanmar

Researchers in Myanmar are reporting high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria among bloodstream isolates from patients at hospitals in the country's largest city.

In findings published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, the researchers report that, of the 592 blood cultures processed from patients at three hospitals in Yangon from July 2014 to December 2014, 42 (7.8%) yielded gram-negative bacteria. Of the 42 gram-negative isolates, 34 were Enterobacteriaceae (20 Escherichia coli, 7 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 6 Salmonella enterica, 1 Enterobacter cloacae) and 8 were non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli.

Almost 80% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were drug-resistant. Twenty (59%) were identified as MDR (with resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobial drugs), and 7 (21%) were classified as extensively drug resistant (with susceptibility to two or fewer classes of antimicrobial drugs), but all MDR Enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to polymixins.

Phenotypic testing suggested the presence of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme in 16 of the gram-negative isolates and carbapenemase enzyme in 6 of the isolates. CTXM-15 ESBL and NDM carbapenemase were the most prevalent mechanisms of resistance.

"The high proportion of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria among bloodstream isolates from hospitalized patients in Yangon raises concern for the treatment of patients with gram-negative sepsis and suggests a need to reduce selective pressure and control the spread of resistant organisms," the authors write.
Mar 23 Emerg Infect Dis research letter

 

New initiative launched to address antimicrobial resistance challenges

The American Society of Microbiology (ASM) has launched a new initiative to analyze and share information on the current state of antimicrobial resistance and identify opportunities to address drug resistance challenges across the microbial sciences.

The ASM venture aims to address a host of antimicrobial resistance issues and identify approaches to maximize the impact on human, animal, and environmental health. Among the issues identified by the initiative's steering committee are the need for expanded surveillance into how resistance is spread, the need for antimicrobial stewardship across settings, the need for more research on environmental reservoirs of resistance, and the need for more research and funding for rapid diagnostic tests and new antibiotics.

ASM says the new initiative will complement existing efforts to address antimicrobial resistance and provide a mechanism for advancing research projects.
Mar 24 ASM press release

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