News Scan for Sep 06, 2019

Polio in 5 nations
More pig ear Salmonella cases
Avian flu in Taiwan, Chile

More wild-type, vaccine-derived polio recorded in 5 countries

Two new cases of wild poliovirus in Afghanistan and several cases of vaccine-derived polio in a handful of other countries were noted today in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's (GPEI's) weekly update. Myanmar, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Ethiopia all recorded vaccine-derived cases.

In Afghanistan, the wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were recorded in Trinket and Chora districts in Uruzgan province. These cases raise Afghanistan’s year-to-date total to 15 cases. The country recorded 21 WPV1 cases in all of 2018.

Myanmar and Ethiopia each reported a single case of vaccine-derived polio, raising their season totals to 2 and 4 cases, respectively. In the DRC, officials tracked 6 new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). DRC officials have confirmed 29 cVDPV2 cases in 2019 so far, 9 more cases than 2018's total.

Angola also noted two cases of cVDPV2, bringing its 2019 total to eight. Myanmar, Ethiopia, and Angola reported no polio cases last year.

So far this year officials have reported 73 WPV cases and 69 cVDPV cases globally, compared with 33 wild WPV and 104 cVDPV cases for all of 2018, the GPEI said.
Sep 6 GPEI update


CDC tracks 16 more cases in pig ear dog treat Salmonella outbreak

Since its last update on Jul 31, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) yesterday recorded 16 more cases of multidrug-resistant Salmonella illness linked to pig-ear dog treats.

A total of 143 people in 35 states have been sickened in this outbreaks, including 33 hospitalizations. There have been no deaths. About 20% of cases have occurred in children under the age of 5.

"CDC and FDA [Food and Drug Administration] are advising people not to buy or feed any pig ear dog treats, including any that may already be in homes," the CDC said. "People can get sick after handling the treats or caring for dogs who ate the treats. Dogs might get sick after eating them."

Several companies that produce pig ear treats, including Dog Goods USA LLC, Lennox Intl Inc, and Pet Supplies Plus, have recalled their products, but the CDC says no single supplier or common brand has been identified in the outbreak.

Of 92 human isolates with whole-genome sequencing data, 90 had predicted antibiotic resistance or decreased susceptibility to one or more antibiotics, including amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Iowa and New York state have reported the most cases, with 23 and 16, respectively. Michigan has 14 cases, and Illinois has 10. Two states, Maryland and Virginia, reported their first case.
Sep 5 CDC update 


Avian flu outbreaks reported in Taiwan, Chile

In the latest avian flu outbreak developments, Taiwan reported another highly pathogenic H5N2 detection, this time in layer quail, and Chile reported a low-pathogenic H7 outbreak at a turkey farm, according to the latest notifications from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

Taiwan's outbreak began on Aug 29 at a commercial farm in Chiayi County, killing 2,500 of 48,684 quail. Authorities culled the surviving birds, put the farm under movement restriction, and intensified surveillance at surrounding farms. The outbreak is part of ongoing H5N2 activity in Taiwan that began in 2015.

Elsewhere, Chile's agriculture ministry said routine tests on 6-week-old fattening turkeys prior to movement at a farm in Valparaiso region on Aug 28 were positive for H7 avian influenza and that virus sequencing on Sep 2 suggested a low-pathogenic H7 virus similar to a subtype found in wild birds in 2016.

No clinical signs were seen in the birds, and all 67,500 birds were culled and buried at the farm. In early 2017, Chile reported two other low pathogenic H7 outbreaks in poultry, both in Valparaiso region.
Sep 6 OIE report on H5N2 in Taiwan
Sep 5 OIE report on low-path H7 in Chile

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