News Scan for Sep 23, 2016

Saudi MERS cases
Sabin polio shot
ILI in children

MERS sickens 2 more in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Health (MOH) today announced two new MERS-CoV cases, both of them involving men who had primary exposure to the virus, meaning they didn't contract their infections from another person.

One of the patients is a 43-year-old expatriate from Riyadh who is not a healthcare worker and is listed in stable condition. The other is a 52-year-old Saudi man from Wadi Al Dawisir in the south central part of the country who is also in stable condition.

The pair of cases lifts Saudi Arabia's overall total MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) cases to 1,456, of which 610 have proved fatal.
Sep 23 Saudi MOH statement


Phase 3 data show success for inactivated Sabin polio vaccine

Results of a phase 3 trial of a Sabin strain-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV) showed that it produced an immune response that was not inferior to the Salk strain–based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Salk-IPV), according to a study yesterday in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

A successful Sabin-IPV would replace the attenuated Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV), thus preventing vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

In the study, 1,200 eligible children under the age of 18 months were given either the Salk-IPV or Sabin-IPV, both of which protect against the three types of wild poliovirus. Seroconversion rates for each strain of polio were comparable 1 month after primary immunization.

The Sabin-IPV seroconversion rates for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were 100%, 94.9%, and 99.0%, respectively. The Salk-IPV rates were 94.7%, 91.3%, and 97.9%. Fever was the only major side effect, with Sabin-IPV causing slightly higher and more fevers than the Salk-IPV.

The total eradication of polio in the developing world is not possible without eliminating vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. The Sabin-strain OPV has been rarely implicated in vaccine-induced polio and is still used in more than 100 countries.
Sep 23 J Infect Dis study


Study shows most ILI cases in young kids not caused by flu virus

A study involving 2,421 children under 10 years old in eight countries who had influenza-like illness (ILI) found that rhinovirus or enterovirus was the most common cause, far outpacing influenza virus, but flu led to more missed days of school or daycare.

The study, by an international group and published yesterday in the Journal of Infection, included 6,266 young children, including 2,421 who experienced 3,717 ILI episodes. They sought care in 1 of 17 centers in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. They were identified through ILI surveillance from February 2010 to August 2011, and diagnosis was made via polymerase chain reaction testing of nasal and throat swabs.

Rhinovirus/enterovirus was the most prevalent cause of infection (41.5%), followed by influenza (15.8%), adenovirus (9.8%), and parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (both 9.7%). Except for flu, the prevalence of respiratory viruses declined with age.

The incidence of medically attended ILI was highest in rhinovirus/enterovirus, at 23.7 per 100 patient-years. Influenza and RSV were next at 9.4 and 6.0, respectively. The percentage of children missing school or daycare ranged from 21.4% for human bocavirus to 52.1% for flu. Human metapneumovirus was second in this category, at 42.5%, followed by adenovirus at 39.0%.
Sep 22 J Infect study

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